Physical inactivity is a major contributor to the global burden of disease, both in high income earned in low middle income countries. Despite the advocacy efforts of NGOs, professional societies, and the Lancet series on physical activity in 2012 and 2016, much remains to be done to increase population levels of activity. This talk will review the policy framework and efforts to promote physical activity in Australia and internationally over the past three decades. Despite having many physical activity researchers, and having a national NCD plan, Australia has no physical activity plan or strategy to promote physical activity or reduced sitting time. Since 1989, rates of physical activity amongst Australian adults have remained unchanged or declined slightly, especially with respect to moderate to vigorous forms of structured physical activity and exercise. Rates of inactivity are also high amongst adolescents and children. The one area which may show some improvement is in population levels of walking, which is an accessible and feasible activity for almost all adults of all ages. Globally, there are also many challenges to resourcing physical activity strategies at the population level. These challenges posed an urgent public health crisis.